By Robert Castel

during this huge e-book, sociologist Robert Castel reconstructs the background of what he calls "the social question," or the ways that either exertions and social welfare were equipped from the center a long time onward to modern business society. all through, the writer identifies constants bearing at once at the query of who's entitled to reduction and who should be excluded: the measure of embeddedness in any given group and the facility to paintings. alongside this twin axis the writer locates nearly the complete historical past of social welfare in early-modern and modern Europe.This paintings is a scientific safeguard of the meaningfulness of the class of "the social," written within the culture of Foucault, Durkheim, and Marx. Castel imaginatively builds on Durkheim's perception into the primarily social foundation of labor and welfare. Castel populates his sociological framework with shiny characterizations of the brief lives of the "disaffiliated": these colourful itinerants whose very life proved this sort of risk to the social textile of early-modern Europe. now not unusually, he discovers that the harsh and punitive measures frequently directed opposed to those marginal figures are deeply implicated within the recommendations and associations of strength and social control.The writer additionally treats the flipside of the matter of social suggestions: specifically, concerns of labor and wage-labor. Castel brilliantly unearths how the likely aim line of demarcation among able-bodied beggars?those who're able to paintings yet who selected to not do so?and those people who are actually disabled turns into stretched in modernity to make room for the class of the "working poor." it's the novel quandary posed via these lots of inhabitants who're not able to take care of themselves by way of their hard work on my own that almost all deeply demanding situations glossy societies and forges recognizably sleek regulations of social assistance.The author's gloss at the social query additionally bargains us useful views on contempo

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From Manual Workers to Wage Laborers: Transformation of the Social Question by Robert Castel

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