By Robert Drews
This e-book argues that the Indo-Europeanizing of Europe basically all started presently sooner than 1600 BC, while lands wealthy in common assets have been taken over by means of army forces from the Eurasian steppe and from southern Caucasia. First have been the copper and silver mines (along with solid harbors) in Greece, and the copper and gold mines of the Carpathian basin. via ca. 1500 BC different army males had taken over the amber coasts of Scandinavia and the metalworking district of the southern Alps. those army takeovers provide the main most likely motives for the origins of the Greek, Keltic, Germanic and Italic subgroups of the Indo-European language family.
Battlefield war and militarism, Robert Drews contends, have been novelties ca. 1600 BC and have been a end result of the army employment of chariots. present opinion is that militarism and battlefield war are as previous as formal states, going again sooner than 3000 BC.
Another present opinion is that the Indo-Europeanizing of Europe occurred lengthy sooner than 1600 BC. The "Kurgan conception" of Marija Gimbutas and David Anthony dates it from overdue within the 5th to early within the 3rd millennium BC and explains it because the results of horse-riding conquerors or raiders coming to Europe from the steppe. Colin Renfrew’s Archaeology and Language dates the Indo-Europeanizing of Europe to the 7th and 6th millennia BC, and explains it as a result of the unfold of agriculture in a "wave of strengthen" from Anatolia via Europe. Pairing linguistic with archaeological proof Drews concludes that during Greece and Italy, not less than, no Indo-European language may have arrived ahead of the second one millennium BC.
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Militarism and the Indo-Europeanizing of Europe by Robert Drews